Medical Terminology Daily (MTD) is a blog sponsored by Clinical Anatomy Associates, Inc. as a service to the medical community. We post anatomical, medical or surgical terms, their meaning and usage, as well as biographical notes on anatomists, surgeons, and researchers through the ages. Be warned that some of the images used depict human anatomical specimens.

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A Moment in History

Jean-Louis Petit

Jean Louis Petit
(1674 – 1750)

French surgeon and anatomist, Jean Louis Petit was born in Paris in on March 13, 1674.  His family rented an apartment at his house to Alexis Littre (1658 – 1726), a French anatomist. Petit became an apprentice of Littre at seven years of age, helping him in the dissections for his lectures and at an early age became the assistant in charge of the anatomic amphitheater.

Because of Petit’s dedication to anatomy and medicine, in 1690 at the age of sixteen, became a disciple of a famous Paris surgeon, Castel.

In 1692, Petit entered the French army and performed surgery in two military campaigns. By 1693 he started delivering lectures and was accepted as a great surgeon, being invited to the most difficult operations.  In 1700 he was appointed Chief Surgeon of the Military School in Paris and in the same year he received the degree of Master of Surgery from the Faculty of Paris.

In 1715 he was made a member of the Royal Academy of Sciences and an honorary member of the Royal Society of London. He was appointed by the King as the first Director General of the Royal Academy of Surgery when it was founded in 1731.

Petit’s written works are of historical importance.  “Traite des Maladies des Os” ( A Treatise on Bone Diseases);  “Traite des Maladies Chirurgicales et des Operation” (A Treatise on Surgical Diseases and their Operations” This last book was published posthumously in 1774. He also published a monograph on hemorrhage, another on lachrymal fistula, and others.

He was one of the first to perform choIecystotomy and mastoidotomy. His original tourniquet design for amputations saved many in the battlefield and the design of the same surgical instrument today has not changed much since its invention by him.

His name is remembered in the lumbar triangle, also called the "triangle of Petit", and the abdominal hernia that can ensue through that area of weakness, the lumbar hernia or "Petit's hernia".

Sources:
1. “Jean Louis Petit – A Sketch of his Life, Character, and Writings” Hayne, AP San Fran Western Lancet 1875 4: 446-454
2. “Oeuvres compl?tes de Jean-Louis Petit” 1837 Imprimerie de F. Chapoulaud
3. Extraits de l'eloge de Jean-Louis Petit Ius dans Ia seance publique de I' Academie royale de chirurgie du 26 mai 1750” Louis A. Chirurgie 2001: 126 : 475- 81


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One of my pet peeves...

(UPDATED)

Say the following words out loud: "DISSECT" and "DISSECTION", then read on...

This is very high up on my list of personal annoyances or pet peeves. It was first brought up to my attention by Aaron Ruhalter, MD in his lectures. I was elated to find an article by Dr John H. Dirckx that took on the topic of the pronunciation of these terms. Dr. Dirckx states that the word should be pronounced with a short "i" as in "dissent"

The words “anatomy” and “dissection” are actually synonymous.  Anatomy has a Greek origin. "Ana" means “apart” and “otomy” is the “process of cutting”: “to cut apart”.

Dissection has a Latin origin and means exactly the same! In fact, for many years the term “to anatomize” was used instead of “ to dissect”! Where is the problem? In the pronunciation! “Dissection” should rhyme with “dissent”, "kissed", and "missed"

An argument could be made that the wrong pronunciation (dai-ssect) is so prevalent that it should be accepted. I disagree, the wrong pronunciation of a word does not make it acceptable.

Further to this argument is a listing of words that include the term (-iss-) which you can read online here. I challenge the audience to find one instance, besides "dissect" and "dissection" where the term is pronounces "ais" instead of "iss".

Other pet peeves:

- Using the word "leg" to mean "lower extremity" as the leg is only a segment of the lower extremity: click here
- Using the term "ramus" instead of "ramus intermedius" for an anatomical variation of the cardiac vasculature: click here
- Using the term "thoratomy" instead of the proper term "thoracotomy": click here

... do not get me started on anatomical and terminological pet peeves...

Sources
1. "The Doctor's Dyslexicon: 101 Pitfalls in Medical Language" Dirckx, JH Am J Dermatopath 2005 Vol: 27(1):86. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1097/01.dad.0000148282.96494.0f
2. The Free Dictionary :https://www.thefreedictionary.com/words-containing-iss

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