Medical Terminology Daily (MTD) is a blog sponsored by Clinical Anatomy Associates, Inc. as a service to the medical community. We post anatomical, medical or surgical terms, their meaning and usage, as well as biographical notes on anatomists, surgeons, and researchers through the ages. Be warned that some of the images used depict human anatomical specimens.

You are welcome to submit questions and suggestions using our "Contact Us" form. The information on this blog follows the terms on our "Privacy and Security Statement" and cannot be construed as medical guidance or instructions for treatment.


We have 255 guests online


A Moment in History

Jean-Louis Petit

Jean Louis Petit
(1674 – 1750)

French surgeon and anatomist, Jean Louis Petit was born in Paris in on March 13, 1674.  His family rented an apartment at his house to Alexis Littre (1658 – 1726), a French anatomist. Petit became an apprentice of Littre at seven years of age, helping him in the dissections for his lectures and at an early age became the assistant in charge of the anatomic amphitheater.

Because of Petit’s dedication to anatomy and medicine, in 1690 at the age of sixteen, became a disciple of a famous Paris surgeon, Castel.

In 1692, Petit entered the French army and performed surgery in two military campaigns. By 1693 he started delivering lectures and was accepted as a great surgeon, being invited to the most difficult operations.  In 1700 he was appointed Chief Surgeon of the Military School in Paris and in the same year he received the degree of Master of Surgery from the Faculty of Paris.

In 1715 he was made a member of the Royal Academy of Sciences and an honorary member of the Royal Society of London. He was appointed by the King as the first Director General of the Royal Academy of Surgery when it was founded in 1731.

Petit’s written works are of historical importance.  “Traite des Maladies des Os” ( A Treatise on Bone Diseases);  “Traite des Maladies Chirurgicales et des Operation” (A Treatise on Surgical Diseases and their Operations” This last book was published posthumously in 1774. He also published a monograph on hemorrhage, another on lachrymal fistula, and others.

He was one of the first to perform choIecystotomy and mastoidotomy. His original tourniquet design for amputations saved many in the battlefield and the design of the same surgical instrument today has not changed much since its invention by him.

His name is remembered in the lumbar triangle, also called the "triangle of Petit", and the abdominal hernia that can ensue through that area of weakness, the lumbar hernia or "Petit's hernia".

Sources:
1. “Jean Louis Petit – A Sketch of his Life, Character, and Writings” Hayne, AP San Fran Western Lancet 1875 4: 446-454
2. “Oeuvres compl?tes de Jean-Louis Petit” 1837 Imprimerie de F. Chapoulaud
3. Extraits de l'eloge de Jean-Louis Petit Ius dans Ia seance publique de I' Academie royale de chirurgie du 26 mai 1750” Louis A. Chirurgie 2001: 126 : 475- 81


 "Clinical Anatomy Associates, Inc., and the contributors of "Medical Terminology Daily" wish to thank all individuals who donate their bodies and tissues for the advancement of education and research”.

Click here for more information


abebooks banner

bookplateink.com

 

 

Conduction system of the heart

Cardiomyocyte-based conduction system of the heart
Conduction system of the heart

[UPDATED] The conduction system of the heart a binary system that includes a cardiomyocyte-based component which acts as an automatic base, and an autonomic nervous system component which acts as a modulator.

The classic description of the conduction system of the heart emphasizes only the cardiomyocyte-based component and refers to a group of specialized cardiac muscle structures that serve as pacemakers and distributors of the electrical stimuli that make the heart beat coordinatedly. It is important to stress the fact that this primary "conduction system of the heart" is not formed by nerves but rather by specialized cardiac muscle cells.

Components of the cardiomyocyte-based conduction system of the heart:

• SA node: The sinoatrial (SA) node is a small nodule of cardiac muscle tissue, somewhat horseshoe-shaped that is found at the junction of the superior vena cava and the right atrium. It receives blood supply from the SA node artery, a branch of the right coronary artery. Later research indicates that the pacemaker function of the SA node includes areas of the lateral wall of the right atrium which are involved in different heart rate speeds.

• AV node: The atrioventricular (AV) node is found at the junction of atria and ventricles in an area known as the "Triangle of Koch". Its function is to delay the electrical impulse passing from the atria to the ventricles by 1/10th of a second, enabling the sequential pumping action of the heart. The eponymic name for the AV node is "node of Aschoff-Tawara", and it receives its blood supply by way of the AV node artery, a branch that usually arises from the right coronary artery

• AV bundle: Also known as the "Bundle of His", this thick bundle of specialized myocardial cells is found in the interventricular septum. It divides into the right and left bundle branches

• Bundle branches: Sometimes known as the "crura" of the bundle of His, these two divisions of the AV bundle help distribute the electrical stimuli to the ventricular walls. The right bundle branch has an extension that crosses the lumen of the right ventricle, from the base of the anterior papillary muscle to the interventricular septum, forming a cord of tissue known as the "moderator band" or "septomarginal trabecula"

• Purkinje Fibers: These thin fibers are the terminal end of the conduction system of the heart and finish the distribution of the electrical stimuli to all parts of the ventricular walls

Although the structural components of the conduction system of the heart were known, it was Dr. Sunao Tawara (1873-1952) who discovered the AV node and described the connections between the components of what he called the "Reitzleitungssytem" (conduction system) of the heart.

A separate article on the secondary conduction system of the heart will be published shortly

Click on the image for a larger version. Image modified from the original: "3D Human Anatomy: Regional Edition DVD-ROM." Courtesy of Primal Pictures.